Characteristics of Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Despite the fact that we breathe out carbon dioxide and that it is present in the atmosphere (about 400 ppm), its maximum safe level is 5000 ppm (0.5% by volume). It is a product of complete combustion and is dangerous it is heavier than air and collects at low levels. There is some degree of risk in crowded, badly ventilated places, and an oxygen deficient atmosphere often accompanies this problem. Carbon dioxide odorless, colorless and difficult to measure in ppm levels, making infrared absorption the usual technique.
Source: Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials (Sixth Edition) by N. Irving Sax
More about Carbon Dioxide
CARBON DIOXIDE - CO2
Diesel Exhaust Component, Dry Ice Carbonic Acid
PEL\TWA: 5,000 ppm
STEL: 30,000 ppm
IDLH: 40,000 ppm
Landfill, mines, breweries
Effects of Various CO2 Levels
Resulting Conditions on Humans
300 (0.03% vol.)
Nothing happens, normal concentration in air.
3,000 - 5,000
Low concentrations cause increased respiration and headache.
5000 (0.5% vol.)
Lung ventilation increases by 5%. PEL.
20,000 (2.0% vol.)
Lung ventilation increases by 50%, headache after several hours of exposure.
10,000 (1.0% vol.)
Symptoms may begin to occur, such as feeling hot and clammy, lack of attention to detail, fatigue, anxiety, loss of energy, weakness in the knees commonly know as (jelly legs).
(5 to 10% vol.)
Violent panting and fatigue to the point of exhaustion merely from respiration & severe headache. Prolonged exposure at 5% could result in irreversible health effects.